Procedures >> Porcelain Restorations >> Porcelain Laminates
|Porcelain Laminates or Veneers are an extension of the Bonding. It consists of applying a preformed thin veneer of porcelain to the tooth using a chemical agent which chemically and micromechanically adheres (bonds) the porcelain to the tooth. The bonding materials used are the same as in composite resin bonding.|
|The differences between porcelain veneering and composite resin veneering are|
|Porcelain gives a more durable and esthetic final result,|
|Porcelain requires at least two visits while composite resins are applied in one visit.|
|Porcelain laminates frequently are used instead of crowns (capping) when there is enough good tooth remaining to support them. They require much less tooth reduction than crowns.|
|When used properly, porcelain laminates can produce incredible results while providing a relatively conservative approach. Porcelain laminates can create illusions of color, form, and position easily.|
|When special porcelains called "luminaries" are applied within them, they can brighten dark teeth without creating an opaqueness. Luminaries are porcelains which produce visible light when they absorb ultraviolet light. They almost create an illusion of a flashlight inside the tooth. When trying to mask out a dark stain like tetracycline or root canal treated teeth, they are an ideal solution.|
|Laminates can create the illusion of straight teeth without orthodontics for the patient who does not want to be in braces. They can also change the color of teeth when other techniques fail.|
|In the following cases, you will see a variety of effects created with laminates.|
|This patient had moderate tetracycline staining of his teeth. He previously had porcelain laminates placed on his upper (maxillary) eight teeth. These laminates still appeared quite gray and "stubby". They created a look of old, worn teeth. In the postop photos you will notice not only whiter teeth, but also a younger appearance due to an increase in the length of his teeth.. . The new maxillary laminates create a more natural and esthetic form.|
|This patient is a model and had porcelain laminates done
by another dentist. It is evident why she was not happy with her smile.
Beside the color and staining, notice the difference in height of the two
central incisors. Initially I recommended gingival surgery in order to even
the height of the two central incisors, but she did not want to have
surgery. So instead, using knowledge of tooth anatomy and contour we were
able to create an esthetic form and color. We placed laminates on her six
upper front teeth as well as her on lower right central incisor, which was
discolored after a root canal treatment.
Notice in her smile picture how the teeth edges follow her lower lip symmetrically and how the gumline follows her upper lipline.
This is what creates an esthetically pleasing and harmonious smile. The teeth appear vital and "Real".
|This patient had a myriad of issues with her smile. Her main complaint was that she didn't like her smile. Her teeth were too dark, they were rotated and the old bondings were discolored. We staged her treatment. The first step was to do gum surgery in order to even the heights of her teeth. Then we bleached her teeth in order to lighten the overall shade. Next, we placed five porcelain laminates, the four center teeth (central and lateral incisors), as well as her left first premolar. The premolar is tucked into a shadow in her preoperative photograph. This type of combination approach frequently gives the best outcome. Each tooth needs to be individually assessed for its needs, then the entire smile needs to be evaluated in relationship to the lips and face.|
|In this case the patient's teeth were severely worn due to years of using a hard bristled tooth brush. He was tired of looking at the worn out teeth and he wanted a change. The two lateral incisors were not worn looking since they were porcelain crowns placed by a previous dentist. I chose to place two porcelain laminates and two all porcelain crowns(In-Ceram). This case demonstrates how different techniques need to be matched in order to get a good esthetic result. It also demonstrates how the face and lips are truly needed in order to assess overall esthetic harmony. In the postoperative photograph it appears that the teeth slant and get smaller and this seems odd, but when you see that the lip is asymmetrical, but symmetrical with the teeth, the final look is esthetic harmony.|
|This is an interesting case because these porcelain laminates were not constructed in a laboratory, but rather they were fabricated on a CEREC CAD/CAM milling machine, and in-office porcelain milling machine developed by Siemens. The front four teeth were laminated. This machine is mainly used for milling inlays and onlays, which have their own section on the website, although the newest CEREC II machine also has the ability to mill crowns.|
|This patient also had a combination approach taken. She had two crowns, three porcelain laminates and a removable partial denture fabricated in order to enhance her smile.|
|This 15 year old had fractured his two front teeth a few years earlier. His right central incisor had a root canal therapy completed at the time of the accident. His teeth had been bonded as an interim measure until the root development was completed. The bonding was now wearing out. We decided to repair the right central incisor with a porcelain laminate and bond the left central incisor with composite resin. You will easily notice the difference in these two materials. The laminate is shiny and smooth while the bonding is duller when dry. The final color matches are similar. The only change I would make in this case is to slightly reshape the inner corner of the bonding to be more symmetrical.|